Çorum – Periods Prior To Written History
Paleolithic Age and Neolithic Age The few stone tools found during archeological excavations are evidence of what could be Paleotlithic Age people who once lived in Corum.Some findings indicate that there was housing in and around Corum in the Neolithic Age during which man passed from a hunting and nomadic life to settled social order.
Calcolithic Age During the Calcolithic Age ( 5500-3000 B.C ) tools made of copper appeared with stone tools in Anatolia. During archeological excavations, it has been determined that settlement was started during the late period of the Calcolithic Age ( 4000 B.C ). Architectural ruins and cultural documents of the period can be found in Alacahoyuk, Buyuk Gullucek and Kussaray.
Early Bronz Age During Ancient Bronze Age period ( 3200-2000 B.C ) there was intense settelement in and around Corum. Within this period besides pottery utensils metal pans,tools and weapons began to be used. Eith the start of the Feudal system,small city states were established and they were surrounded with city walls. Alacahoyuk is one of the most important one of these centers.Alacahoyuk has an important place in the old world with its city planning systems,and the level that reached in agriculture and stockbreeding,apart from its wealth in the Early Bronze Age. Horses were tamed for the first time at Alacahoyuk during this period. The people who reached this high level of civilization were natives of Anatolia. Tombs of 13 Kings, belonging to the Early Bronze Age, were found in Alacahoyuk. The pots,pans,weapons,jewelery and religious figures made of gold,silver,electron and bronze that were found inside these tombs not only give us information about the wealth of the people and the high level of art and culture of the age, but also they give us a massage about their religious beliefs. Some of the important centers of the age were; Bogazkoy,Eskiyapar,Kalınkaya,Kussaray,Coplu-hoyuk,Kultepe Hoyuk’s. The high level of culture, arts and wealth during this period prepared the way for the organized states that would be established during the following years.
Age of Assyrian Trade Colonies ( 1950-1750 B.C ) The Assyrias,who established a state in northern Mesopotamia,established intense tarde relations with Anatolia,which was so rivh from the point of view of copper mining that and they built trade centers called ” KARUM” in nine different places of Anatolia. One of these centers, Hattusas in Bogazkoy was called “HattusKarum”.
During this age,art kept native traditions and customs alive; thus,native Hatti Arts were developed and nourished by Mesopotamian influence .Merchants from Great Assyrian Empire gave the concept of establishing a state to the regional inhabitants and this idea laid the foundation of Hittite Arts and State.
The Hittite Period ( 1650-1200 B.C ) The Hittites, who came trough Central Asia and Caucasia to Anatolia in early 2000 B.C spoke an Indo-Europan language and belonged to the Indo-Germanic races.Assyrian merchants were eventually left with no choice but leave Anatolia in 1850 B.C and after that,the Hittites, who now that the political power in thier hands, laid down the foundation of the first organized states in Anatolia by uniting or destroying the city states.
The first period following the Coloinal Age is known as the Early Hitite Age. The founder of the Hittite State was LABARNA, ( 1860 B.C. ). During King Labarna’s rulership the capital city of the Hittites was moved from Nesa to Hattusas.After his death in 1650 B.C Hattusili I. replaced him and the borders of the state were extended to Haleb. His son, Mursili I. pulled down the Early Babylon State and extended the borders of the state evenm more. After the murder of Mursili I. there were domestic conflicts and clashes throughout the country; thus the state became weak. Telipinu wanted to give an end to this chaos, but when he died in 1550 B.C the Ancient East was burried in cultural by darkness until 1450.
Shuppiluma I.( 1375 – 1335 B.C.) who came to the throne after the ” dark period”, expanded the borders of the empire by wars against Anatoşia and Syria. Mursili II. who became king when he was very young, in ( 1335 B.C ) was so victorious that he also defeated Kashkalls and then Arzavalls in the west. After his death in 1306 his son Muvattali replaced him.Muvattali lied the Kadesh War against Egypt and then Hattusi III. ( 1275 – 1250 B.C )who came to the throne after him,signed the Kadesh Agreement for equal equlaity with Egypt. One of the last Hittite Kings, Tuthalia IV. (1250-1220 B.C) attached importance to cultural activities and reconstructed the capital city, Hattusas, and built the Yazilikaya Open-Air Temple, only two kms from Bogazkoy.
The Phyrgia period and After Tribes which came to Anatolia through the straits in the ” Agean Migration ( Sea Tribe Migrations ) in 1200 B.C pulled down the Hittite State which had become weak. Hittites then migrated to south Anatolia from Corum through Kizilirmak. Thus, a dark period lasting 200 years started in Anatolia. Phyrgians, who are supposed to have come to the region in 8 B.C during, established their own cities in the ruins of the Hittite cities. Bogazkoy,Alacahoyuk,Eskiyapar, and Pazarli are some of the important Phgrygian cities in the Corum region.Although the Phyrgia State was overthrown pulled down in the first half of 6 B.C by Kimmers, their culture continuedfor a period of time after.
After the invasion of Kimmers, Corum and the region came under the rule of Medes, who had established a state in Iran. and then the rule of the Persians between 546 B.C and 330 B.C until the invasion of Anatolia by Alexander the Great.Galatians, who came through Thrace in 276 B.C then won control of the region .Some of the important Galatian centres in the Corum region are; Iskilip,OsmancikiAlacahoyuk,Bogazkoy,Eskiyapar and Avkat.
During the period of Roman Emperor Julius Ceasar, the region was under the control of the Romans. Corum became an the intersection point for the Romans, who constructed the first road network in Anatolia. The roads from Ankara to Amasya and Tavium, from Sinop to Tavim and Zile seperate from Corum when the Roman Empire was divided ( 395 B.C ). Corum was first included in the borders of east Rome and then in Byzantium. In this period,the name of the city was Yankonia or Nikonya.
Transition to Turkish Administration in Corum After Malazgirt in 1071, the bordersof Anatolia were opened up to the Turks. Turkish rulers organized several attacks against Anatolia. There are two different opinions about the invasion of Corum; according to one opinion ,Corum was invaded in 1075 by Danishmend Ahmet Gazi. The second opinion suggests that Ahmet Gazi was appointed tı the administration of the region after Emir tutak Shah, who invaded Corum. Following their success in Corum they were appointed to lead a new invasion of Baghdad.
Corum in the Period of the Danishmend Beylik Tied to the Anatolian Seljuks, the Dnishmends ruled over Corum, Sivas,Tokat,Ankara, Cankiri,Kastamonu and Yozgat.Within these borders the most important event of the Danishmend administration was its struggle against the Crusaders. In 1178 the Danishmend Beylik administration was bound to the Anatolian Seljuks by Kilic Aslan II.
Corum in the Anatolian Seljuks Period It is known that during the period of Giyaseddin Keyhusrev II. there was a Serleskerlik ( Regional Commandership ) administration in Corum and that Commander Hatiruddin Zekariye was the chief of the administration . After Seljuks states were defeated by Mongolians in the 1243 Kosedag war, there was widespread disorder in Anatolia. In 1276, Emir Celaleddin,son of Kunduz bey, saved Corum and Amasya by defeating the Mongolians in Corum. The Kunduzhan district is named after Kunduz Bey.
Corum up to the time of the Ottoman Empire After being overthrown by the Anatolian Seljuk state in 1308, Corum was first governed by the Eretna Beyligi and then the State of Kadi Burhanettin Ahmed that was estalished unity in Anatolia. While trying to establish unity in Anatolia,Yildirim Beyazit, one of the Ottoman Sultans, took control of Corum,Osmancik,Iskilip, and then Amasya 1398. Beyazit later appointed his son Celebi Mehmet as governor of Amasya.
Corum in the period of the Ottoman Empire Corum came under the administration of the Ottoman Empire from 1398 until the proclamation of the Republic. After the Ankara War Celebi Sultan Mehmet, who was sovereign in Amasya under the protection of Timur, took hold of the control of the region under the Ottoman Empire by establishing a “Subasilik” system – a police superintendency – and after establishing stability in Anatolia in 1413, he appointed his son Murat II. as governor of Amasya. During that period Tokat,Sivas,Canik ( Samsun) ,Sebinkarahisar and Corm Sanjaks were tied to Amasya.